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Addtional information

The reports opposite are from pilots or controllers (or joint efforts) following an infringement in from 2009 onwards, except for the longer 'pdf' which was 2007 . They are disidentified but otherwise 'as written' (even keeping text highlighting), unless, for example, a base airfield name has been removed where otherwise it might help locals pinpoint the pilot. (Background colour merely indicates source of data within NATS, but generally yellow tends towards London area, blue further away.)

ATC/Pilot Reports

34. Airspace not specified – Using QFE not QNH during aeros


Forgot to reset QNH after aerobatic sortie – using **** QFE for safety reasons resulting in inadvertent climb into controlled airspace.

FOT Edit: Airfield name removed, (believed to be home base), airspace infringed (not named in report summary) believed to have been either 4500′ or 5500′ base, north west of London.

33. Heathrow CTR – Dead Reckoning + wrong VOR freq cross check


I was navigating using DR, stop watch and map. I thought I had maintained track however i became aware I was not on track. I wanted to take a bearing and distance from BNN but mistakenly dialled in the BPK frequency on NAV 1 and DME. When correcting the frequency I looked out of the cockpit to the South and became aware of proximity to Heathrow. I immediately turned North West and took a bearing and distance from BNN with correct frequency dialled in. Using the VOR rose on the chart as a scale I estimated that I had come close to the London CTR and may have infringed. What I had done is mistake Beaconsfield for Amersham and changed heading.

FOT Edit: Actual route removed, was westward and planned to stay north of the Heathrow CTR.

FOT Comment: Whether morse checked on VOR selection not stated. For anyone flying routes such as this on any side of London under the LTMA there are video clips with tips and aerial views (eg: Amersham). Also, a tip for using a VOR as a ‘guard rail’ not to cross is explained. See Just pick the leg or legs encircling London and up between Stansted and Luton which interest you, and you get a short video brief and see the flight itself and specific landmarks on the way.

32. LTMA. DI Failed, heading problems using Compass alone


Sometime between **** and ****, the Direction Indicator wandered off by over 30 degrees (subsequently identified to be due to the failure of the flux valve) and the DI became U/S. I found it difficult to navigate using only the standby compass and flew substantially North of the intended track. The weather was a factor in that the cloud base was lower than forecast and was at about the minimum for my flight.

FOT Edit: Actual route removed, track was on the North East side of London.

31. LTMA – QFE/QNH mix up (2 pilots, plus fruit distraction)


I have an old student (84yrs) who has his NPPL but can’t get insurance to fly. I occasionally hire an aircraft and let him do the flying. On this occasion I was distracted at the holding point (by some blackberries near the taxiway) and didn’t notice him setting the QFE on the #1 altimeter and the QNH on the second. We got airborne and climbed to 2,400 feet to go over the **** ATZ. At 2,450 feet (on the #1) I asked him to descend a bit and level the aircraft. At this point I checked the QNH and realised my error. We immediately descended to 2,300 on the correct QNH and I contacted Farnborough in order to identify myself and to get a basic service.

FOT Comment: Don’t concentrate on what the distraction is or whether that particular one would be relevant to you, the point is that distractions generally are the third most common quoted links in an error chain leading to an infringement. (See the analysis of pilot reports under the ‘Statistics’ tag above.) If pilots get better at recognising that a distraction – any distraction – has happened at an important time, surely more error chains can be broken early?

30. Luton CTA, apparent lack of preplanning at altitude flown


I was unaware of the 3500 feet limit before the flight, which was partly due to the fact that until very recently I have not regularly flown (in that area) and certainly not over 3000 feet.  I also overlooked the Luton marking on the chart when planning my route. The fact that I was at 4000 feet was unplanned and due to my being distracted by an unexpected reading on the VOR.  I was checking my instruments and track and I allowed my altitude to rise.

FOT Edit: Base airfield and direction removed.

29. Ad-hoc decision to climb infringed CAS


Made ad-hoc decision to climb out of haze layer and slight turbulence, too soon.  Failed to correctly identify altitude limits in complicated airspace, didn’t like to spend too long looking inside cockpit at chart, mis-identified limit as 5500′.

FOT Edit: None – Whole report available reproduced.

FOT Comment: Many infringements come from climbs unplanned before flight. From source of data, infringed airspace assumed to be LTMA or a CTA within it.

28. Stansted CTA bust, confusion over VOR/DME


There was a navigational error on my part which caused this infringement to occur. I was supposed to turn south heading 188 towards DET VOR 42 miles from my waypoint2 (CLN324024), unfortunately I turned 42 miles to run to CLN VOR which was too early. I then tried to intercept radial 188 TO DET VOR which I was having no luck (the VOR was not responding) but the DME to DET VOR was reducing. When the DET VOR started responding I then headed south east and intercepted the 188 redial TO DET VOR, I then immediately contacted Farnborough who told me I had infringed the Stansted CTA.

FOT Edit: None – Whole report available reproduced.

FOT Comment: Confusion over turning point in radio nav.

27. Infringement whilst focusing on engine instruments


This was a first flight after maintenance for a serious loss of power. Aircraft had not been used for 24 days. The initial stage of the flight was dominated by my concerns that the problem with the engine had been solved. My monitoring of the engine performance at the T+Ps allowed me to miss a somewhat reluctant DI.

FOT Edit: None! Whole report available reproduced.

FOT Comment: Actual airspace infringed not supplied to FlyOnTrack, assumed to be CTR or CTA.. Pilot distracted from tasks by worries from previous flight.

26. Unfamiliarity with x-ponder meant no Mode C in TMZ


This was to be a short training flight for the purpose of familiarising a pilot on a PA28 Archer which he had not flown before prior to the aircraft being hired, the initial handling was under the Stansted CTA but within the TMZ. The transponder which was a Garmin 330 (older model) was unfamiliar to both the pilot and myself having not operated that type before. We both believed Mode C was in use as the display was showing a Flight Level. This type does not have the ‘standard’ type of rotary selector which clearly shows ‘on and ‘alt’ but a system of small push buttons. The display appeared correct and the Flight Level that was showing was what we would expect. It was only on landing and looking at length at the transponder that we found another button for ‘alt’ which then caused a very small ‘alt’ to be displayed in the bottom left hand corner of the unit.

FOT Edit: Base airfield removed, minor rewording for grammar/clarity after cropping story.

FOT Comment: Again unfamiliarity with equipment contributes to a problem. Non-use of Mode C if actually available is considered to be negligence in the case of any CAS infringement, as it provides a safety net for controllers and TCAS equipped aircraft. Here, the Mode C is mandatory in the Class G TMZ (without permission from ATC before entering).

25. Gatwick CTR – Distraction from difficulty setting VOR


I took off from **** and routed to Guildford and then set a course to transit Biggin Hill to arrive at Manston. I selected 7000 & the Biggin frequency.  However, as I did this I became aware that visibility had became much worse with the haze. I tried to set up the VOR to Biggin Hill to keep in the narrow corridor (*between Heathrow and Gatwick CTRs) but as I hadn’t flown this plane in a while I had some problems setting the VOR frequency. I eventually worked out pushing the c/v is needed to change this. Whilst attempting to set up the VOR I called Biggin to request a Basic Service and was allocated a 7047 squawk  When I had set the VOR I suddenly noticed on the GPS screen I had entered Gatwick airspace near Redhill by approx 1 mile. I immediately turned North to leave. I was then informed by Biggin to change my transponder and that a report had been filed.

FOT Edit: Base airfield removed, “Heathrow and Gatwick” comment between parentheses added for clarity.

FOT Comment: A number of incidents come in where distraction from difficulty setting equipment ‘on the hoof’ is involved. If this difficulty happens to you, try and remember it is one of the events in many an error chain!

24. Birmingham CTA – Set New Course Slightly Too Early


I took off from **** and as soon as I was clear of their airspace I contacted Birmingham Radar on 118.050 for a basic service. This was given along with a squawk code. I continued to my turning point at Studley. I turned at the northern end of the town which in retrospect was a little early. I descended to 1400ft for the leg to Coventry and continued with Birmingham ATC who asked me to inform them when I was going to change frequency. This was done at about 12 miles from Coventry who had been complaining previously  about aircraft not calling early enough. Birmingham were told of the is action and I was given clearance to change to the safety frequency. As no instructions were given I assumed that there was no potential traffic or airspace conflict. After arrival at Coventry I was contacted and told of the infringement and checked on the map and though I was clear of the airspace where I had been told I was 800yds inside the zone. Subsequent close examination of the chart sent by Birmingham compared to the 1.5000000 scale map it is clear that i was just inside by the 800yds as originally stated. i.e right in the southern edge of Honiley airfield.

FOT Edit: Base airfield removed.

FOT Comment: ‘Crossing of the line’ (eg: a control zone boundary) by any amount without permission means an ATC unit has to put a ‘no-fly’ zone of 5 mile radius around the infringer, as merely crossing the line suggests the pilot is unsure of current position and therefore his/her next actions are unpredictable.

23. Solent CTA, Training Flight, Instructor Distracted ‘identing’ VOR


Cross country training flight from **** via Bognor to Isle of Wight and return.  At the Needles after 2 orbits at 1500 feet we set course to return. I asked my student to start a cruise climb to 2000 feet and was tuning and identing Midhurst VOR to use for demonstration later. I was distracted and aircraft climbed too high and infringed Solent Airspace.

FOT Edit: Base airfield removed.

FOT Comment: The Needles has CTA base starting at 3500′, which soon steps down to 2000′ to the North East.

22. Birmingham CTA, Helicopter S.P. Workload, Clarity of CTA Step on Half-Mil Chart


On reflection the key cause of the infringement was the use of the 1:500,000 map on which the change from the Western Class D airspace with a 2500 ft ceiling to the 1500 ft ceiling is considerably less clear and the area much harder to see than the 1:250,000 where it is unmistakable. As most light helicopters have no autopilot pilots are fully engaged in phsically flying the machine the whole time which makes organising and folding small scale maps a considerable challenge. My invariable practice, if I have no passenger, is to have my map or maps for the route laid out folded on the front vacant seat. Because the route (****) is diagonal across the central part of the UK it can not only involve up to three maps but also involves three separately folded sections of the Sheet 8 England South Edition. Hence, as I was alone, I elected to use a combination of the 1:500,000 and the GPS. The other contributory factor is the concentration and distraction of flying over the Bromsgrove and Redditch areas where a combination of rising ground around Bromsgrove and the 2500 ft ceiling means that I had depart from my blue line pre planned route to comply with safe flying principles for a helicopter involving flying along green corridors or over open countryside to ensure that there is somewhere to auto rotate to safety in the event of an engine failure. This is a particular distraction when flying over this SW corner of Greater Birmingham and can be accentuated in times of headwinds and turbulent conditions. It was a combination of deviating from my planned route and using the 1:500,000 that contributed to me taking the more easterly route that in turn led to the infringement.

FOT Edit: Departure/Destination removed.

21. Birmingham CTA – Pilot distracted trying multiple (unsuccessful) calls to another ATC unit


Having left **** on this route which I have travelled on a number of occations I attemted to call up Coventy for proceedure through the next part of the journey.My first attempt was aprox 7 minutes from entering Birmingham CTA. I attemted to call Coventry (123.825) 3 times before remembering having seen in the press the airport had gone into liquidation. I immediatly called London Information with my position advising them I could not contact Coventry. London Information sugested i should try Coventry Tower (118.175). I tried the frequency given 3 times again without any responce. Following this I went back to London Information who then said “you could always call Birmingham Approach on  118.05 “. I immediatly switched to Birmingham Approach and heard ATC advising a police Helicopter on a VFR flight to look out for an unidentified aircraft west of the Coventry Field.I immediatly realised it was my aircraft that they were refering to and made myself known. I was at approx 1700 feet and decending having made this contact.At the time of the inital switch to Birmingham and listening the conversation I realised I had entered your zone without permision  and was at 1800 feet. I was so preoccupied with trying to make contact with the ATC to get my position monitored that I failed to realise I had entered the zone.

FOT Edit: Departure airfield removed.

FOT Comment: Coventry ATC was closed for some time during late 2009 / early 2010 following airport lease problems.

20. Infringed Vertically, Aerobatics in ‘2nd Choice’ Area due Weather


I took of from **** intending to climb out to the SW for some aerobatics. However, an approaching front was creeping up from the south and as I climbed out I could see that the cloud base to the south was about 3000ft. Therefore I climbed out to the NW  and on reaching 5000ft (approx QFE 999) commenced a few basic aeros about 4NW of Cosford. After a short while I decided to move my noise footprint to avoid upsetting people in the local area. With the cloud base still a problem to the south I decided to climb back up to 5000ft and move to the Belvide Reservoir (5 NE Cosford). Once there I carried out a few more simple aeros before returning to ****. When I was informed of the infringement a few days later I did not think it could be me. However, on checking the profile of the flight against my map I realised it was. When over the Belvide Reservoir Cosford seemed so close that I was lulled into a false sense of security (complacency) and at the time I didn’t feel airspace was an issue.

FOT Edit: Base airfield and another identifying factor removed.

19. Southampton CTR, Mistook Town on edge of CTR for Another


After departure from ****, I was working Solent on 119.475 to Stoney Cross (off the right hand side). When I left Stoney Cross, I changed frequency to Boscombe for MATZ penetration – couldn’t reach them. I exchanged calls with other company aircraft on frequency  who believed that they shut. I didn’t want to go through MATZ, even though I know that you can, and so I listened out on Boscombe frequency as passing their airspace. I planned to go to the town NW of Romsey where two rivers met, and route between airspace. Wind drift pushed me closer to Romsey than I thought. It would appear that I routed to Romsey, not where I originally planned. At Romsey (thinking I was at the other town) I turned Easterly, and then Northerly after a few miles, still listening out on Boscombe. Knowing I was approaching Winchester, and free from controlled airspace, I called Farnborough 125.250 for basic service back to CPT. Farnborough told me to turn NW immediately as I had infringed the Solent CTR.

FOT Edit: Departure airfield removed and aircraft registrations removed.

FOT Comment: Romsey is the western VRP for Southampton CTR, on the boundary. Bournemouth (119.475) & Solent (120.225) have a ‘Listening Squawk’ of “0011” for aircraft near their airspace – see list in “hot news” on home page, or in the links sub page, both on this site.

18. Birmingham CTA (Regret not using Listening Squawk)


My first visit to EG__. Originally planned via Wellesbourne and Worcester avoiding CTA. Decided to fly direct from Wellesbourne to EG__. Noted CTA 3500 – FL45 immediately N of Wellesbourne, but failed to spot reduction to 2500 to NW. After obtaining landing information from (destination), checked position on chart, spotted error and descended beneath CTA. Should have used listening squawk. Always squawk 0013 in vicinity of Luton or Stansted but failed to check if one was available for Birmingham.

FOT Edit: Airfield removed.

FOT Comment: Birmingham does have a ‘Listening Squawk’ of “0010 / 118.050 MHz” – see list in “hot news” on home page, or in the links sub page, both on this site.

17. Birmingham / Daventry CTA, last minute change of route


Misunderstood altitude limits of Birmingham / Daventry CTA during flight. A change to my route was necessitated at the last minute, therefore preparation was not as thorough as would have been otherwise. Poor decision to change to Farnborough LARS on departure from EG__. Bad reception led to pilot distraction and subsequent infringement. As advised by Birmingham ATC post-event, Brize LARS would have been a better choice and they would likely have helped prevent infringement.

FOT Edit: Airfield removed.

16. Heli Lifting within, then Exiting, Manchester CTR


Prior to lifting called MCR Radar, unable to make contact, set my squawk to 7000 with mode C and lifted. I received a strength 3 signal at around 50ft QFE 150ft QNH. I requested a basic service and zone transit and was asked to stand by. I cautiously held in the hover at 150ft QNH for a few minutes and was aware that the controller was busy, however, in doing so this meant operating the aircraft at a height and velocity outside the recommended perimeters therefore, for safety reasons I decided that my best course of action was to leave the zone 3 nm to west of my position remaining below 500ft QNH and maintain a listening watch until an air traffic service became available. I was aware of the IFR arrivals and a VFR helicopter traffic heading south approx 300ft above my level. (After a few minutes delay) I was asked to  pass my message and upon reporting my position the controller expressed some concern and advised that I should not have lifted into the zone without approval. I apologised and relayed the instructions that I had been given prior to landing, namely on final approach I was advised that prior to departing again I should call radar before lifting and if unable to make contact call again in the hover.

FOT Edit: Trimmed for space, some re-ordering needed as a result (eg: arrival info moved to end).

15. GPSs Disagree (Unnamed Midlands C.A.S.)


Monitoring sky map on yoke. which showed no infringement, checked with main display which showed an infringement. Turned immediately to get out off controlled air space. Normally talk to Atc as feel safer, with some kind of service. But rushing to get back to (home airfield in Midlands) as had phone call while at (visited airfield towards Wales) as plane was required urgently. Should not have responded to pressure, contacted ATC and monitored height/location correctly.

FOT Edit: Name of airfields removed.

14. Birmingham 1500′ base CTA (2)


When flight planning the route (over a few days on the dining table – no rushed job) I believed that the lower limit of controlled airspace along my route in the Leamington Spa/Coventry airport region was 3,500 ft.  Having infringed, and been asked to call Birmingham ATC when I landed, I called from EG__, and only then, with the map in front of me, did I see the 1,500 ft limit along my track.  I did not see this in the air when told of my infringement.

FOT Edit: Name of airfield removed.

13. Birmingham 1500′ base CTA (1)


A recreational flight was planned on an impromptu basis to reconnoitre Coventry airport for a future landing to visit the aircraft museum. The pre-flight preparation was not extensive. The 3500-FL45 boundary was noted but the less obvious 1500-FL45 boundary was missed. This boundary was crossed unintentionally as we approached Coventry and soon afterwards turned around for the return leg. The ATC wasn’t contacted as we didn’t expect to enter the airspace and did not wish take up the time of a busy airport controller.  We were aware at all times of our position and did not require the use of a GPS.

12. Heathrow CTR, Pilot error on ADF settings plus mis-read heading


Turned to course 173 deg. I misread this heading from my pilot log (173 was actually the heading for the next leg, not this one). I selected WOD 352 (an NDB) but the gauge did not respond and after a few checks I decided that the gauge  must be unserviceable* and resorted to VFR navigation. There was lots of standing water in the fields which made it difficult. After 6 minutes I called Farnborough LARS and  the controller  informed me of the incursion and routed me to the west leaving controlled airspace two minutes or so later.

(* Later in the flight I realised that the ADF was not U/S, I had failed to depress the “ADF” button on the device and when I did the gauge read normally.)

FOT Edit: Departure airfield removed, clarification of ‘WOD’,  plus ‘cuts’ of extra detail, sometimes meaning minor wording changes to allow for ‘grammar’ or ‘readability’ after the cut.

11. Navigation Error near Gatwick due distractions


This was the first flight for my (relatives), and for the first time when on a flight in the same sort of area I had decided not to switch to Farnborough LARS but stay with (my departure airfield frequency). Had I switched, as I normally do, Farnborough would have warned me of my impending error and corrective action could have been taken. I can only conclude I was distracted from navigating my planned route and mis identified certain features.

FOT Edit: Exact passenger details plus Departure airfield removed.

FOT Comment: Airspace infringed either LTMA or Gatwick CTA/CTR, not stated.

10. LTMA Infringement during Air Test (Believed to be S W of Gatwick)


I never go to 5000ft during my leisure flying. The requirement to do so on (date) was part of the Air Test. Immediately after the climb I performed a Vne descent on a Northerly heading.

FOT Edit: Reference to what is believed to be a date removed.

FOT Comment: Pilot also questions transponder readout of 5200′.

9. LTMA East of London – unthinking climb


I entered the coordinates of (Kent Airfield) and set a course for there, heading approx 140. Approaching the area north of the Thames but to the east of the QEII bridge, I started to climb slowly. I accept totally that I should not have done this at this particular point, and in doing so, I entered the LTMA. I can only apologise most profusely for this error, and no-one is more shaken by this infringement than myself. I just cannot believe that I did something so stupid.

FOT Edit: Initial extra detail dropped, destination removed.

8. Unnamed Control Zone – Poor visibility


There were heavy snow showers in the area, we mis-identified the ground features due to the poor vis and tracked too far to the east of our intended track. We thought we were close but outside the zone.

7. London TMA, Instructor concentrating too much on lesson


Work load consequent with conducting a general handling training exercise. My normal operating area was overcast at about 2000ft, so I decided to operate further north in an area which I am not greatly familiar with. Concentrated too much on the lesson and as a result lost situational awareness for a period. I thought I was further south than my actual position. The only usable horizon was to the north which was a contributory factor, but no excuse.

FOT Edit: Minor detail dropped which would identify base airfield.

FOT Comment: Airspace believed to be LTMA.

6. Heathrow CTR – Solo Student misidentify features

Instructor (for solo student)

The student became confused over position after leaving the Benson MATZ. To avoid confliction he started to seek out Reading to orbit as briefed. Unable to locate the town he convinced himself that to the North and East he could see the M4. He flew North toward the motorway and then East to locate (xxx). In the distance he could make out an airfield. He established radio contact with (xxx) and whilst preparing his arrival it became clear that the airfield ahead was too developed to be (xxx), he was in fact approaching Northolt. On realising his mistake he alerted (xxx) and requested assistance. Instructions were relayed to the pilot from Heathrow including a request to switch the transponder to mode “C”. The headings given by ATC brought the pilot directly to (xxx) overhead where he carried out a safe landing. The student commented he was grateful for the vectors since he was now somewhat disorientated and upset. He could not explain why the transponder had not been set to Mode C and felt it was simply an oversight.

FOT Edit: Base Airfield name removed, minor rephrasing clarifying with whom student was in radio contact.

FOT Comment: Report written by supervising Instructor based on student report.

5. Luton CTR (Solo Student difficulty using radio equipment)

Instructor (for solo student)

The route had been flown by the student with an instructor on three separate occasions and had done it solo a couple of weeks beforehand (although on that occasion somehow ended up to the north of Cambridge and got ATC assistance). Having practiced the route dual the weekend before, this was giving it a second attempt. En-route, the student seemed to have trouble changing frequency to Farnborough. I had set up the frequencies for the student before the flight and briefed on use of the equipment. En route, the student tried to raise Farnborough, then decided to go straight to Cambridge Approach when abeam Buntingford (by changing to box2). By this time, the student was quite flustered and was unable to get Cambridge, and decided to turn back to base and tried to raise Farnborough again, this time successfully, but had infringed Luton airspace. Farnborough helped the student out of the zone and back to (xxx), and moreover in a manner that helped the student stay calm and concentrate on flying the plane.

FOT Edit: Base Airfield name removed, & minor changes merely to remove personal detail.

FOT Comment: Report written by supervising Instructor based on student report.

4. (CAS Not Specified) – Overload / Distractions?


PPL Mock Test Navigation and G/H. In trying to disorientate the student, I managed to disorientate myself.

FOT Comment: CAS infringed thought to be somewhere in general (wide) London area.

3. Stansted TMZ – NonXPDR Process Not Understood


I had contacted Farnborough before leaving (xxxx) and asked for a TMZ transit which I got. I had no idea that I should have asked permission to transit the TMZ on my way out of North Weald (EGSX). I spoke to EGSX and almost immediately tuned to 132.8 and stayed with them until past BNN. I am sorry about this and it will not happen again. My transponder (Mode S/C) has now arrived back and is being refitted at this moment.

FOT Edit: Name of base airfield removed.

FOT Comment: To clarify, first sentence refers to ‘inbound’ leg to N. Weald. Subsequent problem was return leg.

2. LTMA – 2 Pilots, Altimeter Wrongly Set


I am supposed to carry a safety pilot if carrying passengers. Two pilots sharing responsibility didn’t work out as well as expected. Altimeter setting too low. I have flown this route dozens of times. No problems. Safety pilot flew after take off from (xxxx). Realised error after hearing Shoreham QFE. I from Uckfield to Hailsham then landed at Heathfield. This was my second flight since renewing my licence after a gap march to September. Also my 2nd flight with the safety pilot, not one of our group. We need time.

FOT Edit: Base Airfield name removed, & personal detail removed.

1. Stansed TMZ – New Equipment


I didn’t have transponder turned on in the Stansted Mandatory area, I have just installed a new Garmin Transponder which unlike the old now requires me to press the cursor button twice after turning on, I didn’t notice that I had not done this until 10 mins into the flight.

FOT Comment: Some new transponders still need the ‘ALT’ button pressing at some stage during initialisation for each flight. I discovered the members of one syndicate (NOT this aircraft reported above) at my airfield were only using the ON or Cursor button throughout the boot-up. The resulting display (showing A-S) was not being checked by the pilot (it should show ACS), therefore they were unaware they were not transmitting altitude at any time.

0. Heathrow CTR – Cockpit Overload (Lesson)


Reports in this section are 2009 onwards, with this exception. This 2007 report has been jointly constructed by instructor and controller to report what was happening at ‘either end’ of an infringement of Heathrow CTR. Due to size, it is in pdf form. Joint Report: Heathrow CTR